¡¡¡¡Buddhist culture has a long history in Qianshan Mountain. According to the relevant records and experts¡¯ researches, as early as North Wei Dynasty, Buddhist has been preached to the east of Liaoning and reached to its prime in Sui and Tang Dynasty. The Five Buddhist Temples have emerged subsequently in Tang Dynasty, three schools among which, such as Pilu Temple, Linji Temple and Caodong Temple, have been spread up to now.
¡¡¡¡In the expanse of 12.5 km2 of Qianshan Mountain Scenic Area, most Buddhist Temples are located in the gullies and ravines: Da¡¯an Temple, Xiangyan Temple and Guiyuan Temple are located in the South Ravine; Zhonghui Temple and Shilong Temple are located in the Middle Ravine; Longquan Temple, Zuyue Temple, Lingyan Temple and Grand Buddha Temple are located in the North Ravine, as well as the Cihang Temple, locating beside the mountain. All of these temples have exerted profound influence of Buddhist Culture on the Qianshan Mountain Scenic Area with their distinct natural landscapes and time-honored history. Here below is a brief description of these influence by these 3 examples: Longquan Temple, Da¡¯an Temple and Xiangyan Temple.
¡¡¡¡Longquan Temple, located in the North Ravine of Qianshan Mountain, the southwest of Zuyue Temple, has always been well known as Longquan Fairyland. It¡¯s the place which first ushered in the Buddhist Monks in Qianshan Mountain: In the early period of South and North Dynasty, monks began to practice Buddhism in the Elysium Cave; in the early Tang Dynasty, an Arhat Cave and a Buddhism Hall were established in the Elysium Cave; the Temple was quite small in Jin Dynasty, then grew in blooming in Ming Dynasty, and got expanded in Qing Dynasty up to the scale and pattern of today. Zong Yun, Congzheng, Conghui and Pu¡¯an of Ming Dynasty; Shiguo, Laiyong and Xingguang of Qing Dynasty; Changhe of the Republic of China; Qinhai and Chuanpu at contemporary, all of them have made tremendous contribution for the thriving of Longquan Temple. The natural landscape of Longquan Temple has also attracted enormous literati to make poems, paintings and articles for praising it, added with many historical anecdotes, all of which have brought it with world-wide reputation. The anecdotes are: Empress Dowager Li of Ming Dynasty has decreed to grant more than 600 volumes of Tripitakas for it; Emperor Kangxi of Qing Dynasty has arrived here and made a praising poem; Emperor Qianlong has written a poem to express his regret in missing the Qianshan Mountain for three times; Wang Erlie studied in the west chamber and gained the official rank, then he made a poem for memorizing the experience in staying here; and Miao Runfu has chanted over the sixteen scenic spots of Longquan Temple again and again. These have made Longquan Temple an appealing place for domestic and foreign visitors.
¡¡¡¡Xiangyan Temple is located in the South Ravine, it¡¯s also one of the earliest temples in Qianshan Mountain, there are still remains of the Buddhists¡¯ earliest activities in the precipitous cliffs at the east of the temple, such as broken bricks, rotten hemp ropes and ceramic pieces. The inscriptions of the Xiangyan Temple are the foremost both in quantity and in age, among which, the earliest one is the jade tablet with ¡°Snow Nunnery Monk Jingong Pagoda Inscription¡± of the Second Year of Emperor Huangqing in Yuan Dynasty (in AD 1313). The Xiangyan Temple has been well known as the ¡°treasure house of cultural relics and historic sites¡±. The main cultural relics and historic sites are Snow Nunnery Ancient Well, Snow Nunnery Cave, Snow Nunnery Pagoda, Twin Pagoda, Forest of Steles, Grand Hall, Jieyin Hall, Dizhang Hall and Hall of the Celestial Kings in the Xiangyan Temple; there enshrine and worship the Quyang white marble carving and Dark Jade Buddhist Icons. The natural landscape of Xiangyan Temple is also extremely spectacular, such as: E¡¯tou Peak of Xianrentai Mountain, Shangjia Peak, Xiajia Peak, Xianren Bridge, Twin Well, Shigang Peak, Bijia Peak, Dragon Lake and Panglong Pine, etc., which makes the visitors emotionally attached to the picturesque scenery and reluctant to leave. When it refers to the Buddhism masters in Xiangyan Temple, we must bring up the Patriarch of Snow Nunnery first, who has leaved five or six activity-traces around Xiangyan Temple; then the Eminent Monk Shaomin in Qing Dynasty has led a resurgence to the Xiangyan Temple; and at contemporary, Monk Benyuan has made extraordinary contribution in leading the monks and lay Buddhists to raise money and build the stone stairs from Xiangyan Temple to Xianrentai Mountain, which brought an end to the perilous climbing of Xianrentai Mountain, and rendered it a safe and appealing wonderland for the descendants.
¡¡¡¡Da¡¯an Temple is located at the South Ravine, which enjoys widespread renown for its high terrain and surrounding grotesque peaks. When you pass through the twisted and turned hill paths to reach the Da¡¯an Temple, the first scene catching your eyes is the gate of Da¡¯an Temple constructed in granite, a stone arch gate of palace roof style and has established in Emperor Daoguang of Qing Dynasty, a distinct marvelous scenery of Da¡¯an Temple and most popularized among painters and photographers. When you look around, Yinhe Peak, Foshou Peak, Bitao Peak, Jingang Peak, Xianglu Peak, Shuangcui Peak, Luo Peak and Baotai Peak will imprint in your eyes and mind, which also will remind you of the lodging residence of Emperor Li Shimin of Tang Dynasty in conquering Liao and the healing residence of General Xue Rengui. Guanyin Cave, Kaijue Cave and Arhat Cave support the poets with free reverie for creation. The poems left by Monk Poet Hanke of Qing Dynasty remind people of the miserable sufferings of the first literary inquisition of this dynasty. We can enter his inner mind through reading his Qianshan Mountain Poetry.